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Identification of LDH-A as a therapeutic target for cancer cell killing via (i) p53/NAD(H)-dependent and (ii) p53 independent pathways

Allison, Simon J., Knight, J.R.P., Granchi, C., Rani, R., Minutolo, F., Milner, J. and Phillips, R.M. (2014) Identification of LDH-A as a therapeutic target for cancer cell killing via (i) p53/NAD(H)-dependent and (ii) p53 independent pathways. Oncogenesis, 3 (e102). pp. 1-11. ISSN 2157-9024

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Abstract

Most cancer cells use aerobic glycolysis to fuel their growth. The enzyme lactate dehydrogenase-A (LDH-A) is key to cancer’s glycolytic phenotype, catalysing the regeneration of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD þ ) from reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) necessary to sustain glycolysis. As such, LDH-A is a promising target for anticancer therapy. Here we ask if the tumour suppressor p53, a major regulator of cellular metabolism, influences the response of cancer cells to LDH-A suppression. LDH-A knockdown by RNA interference (RNAi) induced cancer cell death in p53 wild-type, mutant and p53-null human cancer cell lines, indicating that endogenous LDH-A promotes cancer cell survival irrespective of cancer cell p53 status. Unexpectedly,however,weuncoveredanovelroleforp53intheregulationofcancercellNADþ anditsreducedformNADH.Thus, LDH-A silencing by RNAi, or its inhibition using a small-molecule inhibitor, resulted in a p53-dependent increase in the cancer cell ratioofNADH:NADþ.Thiseffectwasspecificforp53þ/þ cancercellsandcorrelatedwith(i)reducedactivityofNADþ-dependent deacetylase sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) and (ii) an increase in acetylated p53, a known target of SIRT1 deacetylation activity. In addition, activation of the redox-sensitive anticancer drug EO9 was enhanced selectively in p53 þ / þ cancer cells, attributable to increased activity of NAD(P)H-dependent oxidoreductase NQO1 (NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1). Suppressing LDH-A increased EO9-inducedDNAdamageinp53þ/þ cancercells,butimportantlyhadnoadditiveeffectinnon-cancercells.Ourresultsidentifya unique strategy by which the NADH/NADþ cellular redox status can be modulated in a cancer-specific, p53-dependent manner and we show that this can impact upon the activity of important NAD(H)-dependent enzymes. To summarise, this work indicates two distinct mechanisms by which suppressing LDH-A could potentially be used to kill cancer cells selectively, (i) through induction of apoptosis, irrespective of cancer cell p53 status and (ii) as a part of a combinatorial approach with redox-sensitive anticancer drugs via a novel p53/NAD(H)-dependent mechanism.

Item Type: Article
Subjects: R Medicine > RM Therapeutics. Pharmacology
Schools: School of Applied Sciences
Depositing User: Roger Phillips
Date Deposited: 09 Feb 2015 12:09
Last Modified: 05 Dec 2016 10:15
URI: http://eprints.hud.ac.uk/id/eprint/23257

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