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Effects of modifier additions on the thermal properties, chemical durability, oxidation state and structure of iron phosphate glasses

Bingham, P.A., Hand, R.J., Hannant, O.M., Forder, S.D. and Kilcoyne, Susan H. (2009) Effects of modifier additions on the thermal properties, chemical durability, oxidation state and structure of iron phosphate glasses. Journal of Non-Cystalline Solids, 355. pp. 1526-1538. ISSN 0022-3093

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Modified iron phosphate glasses have been prepared with nominal molar compositions [(1�x)�(0.6P2O5–
0.4Fe2O3)]�xRySO4, where x = 0–0.5 in increments of 0.1 and R = Li, Na, K, Mg, Ca, Ba, or Pb and y = 1 or 2. In
most cases the vast majority or all of the sulfate volatalizes and quarternary P2O5–Fe2O3–FeO–RyOz
glasses or partially crystalline materials are formed. Here we have characterized the structure, thermal
properties, chemical durability and redox state of these materials. Raman spectroscopy indicates that
increasing modifier oxide additions result in depolymerization of the phosphate network such that the
average value of i, the number of bridging oxygens per –(PO4)– tetrahedron, and expressed as Qi,
decreases. Differences have been observed between the structural effects of different modifier types
but these are secondary to the amount of modifier added. Alkali additions have little effect on density;
slightly increasing Tg and Td; increasing a and Tliq; and promoting bulk crystallization at temperatures
of 600–700 �C. Additions of divalent cations increase density, a, Tg, Td, Tliq and promote bulk crystallization
at temperatures of 700–800 �C. Overall the addition of divalent cations has a less deleterious effect
on glass stability than alkali additions. 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy confirms that iron is present as Fe2+
and Fe3+ ions which primarily occupy distorted octahedral sites. This is consistent with accepted structural
models for iron phosphate glasses. The iron redox ratio, Fe2+/RFe, has a value of 0.13–0.29 for the
glasses studied. The base glass exhibits a very low aqueous leach rate when measured by Product Consistency
Test B, a standard durability test for nuclear waste glasses. The addition of high quantities of
alkali oxide (30–40 mol% R2O) to the base glass increases leach rates, but only to levels comparable with
those measured for a commercial soda-lime-silica glass and for a surrogate nuclear waste-loaded borosilicate
glass. Divalent cation additions decrease aqueous leach rates and large additions (30–50 mol%
RO) provide exceptionally low leach rates that are 2–3 orders of magnitude lower than have been measured
for the surrogate waste-loaded borosilicate glass. The P2O5–Fe2O3–FeO–BaO glasses reported here
show particular promise as they are ultra-durable, thermally stable, low-melting glasses with a large
glass-forming compositional range.

Item Type: Article
Subjects: Q Science > QC Physics
Schools: School of Applied Sciences
Related URLs:
Depositing User: Sue Kilcoyne
Date Deposited: 06 Dec 2011 11:45
Last Modified: 05 Nov 2015 01:36


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