Search:
Computing and Library Services - delivering an inspiring information environment

Polysaccharide drug delivery systems based on pectin and chitosan

Morris, Gordon, Kok, M. S., Harding, S. E. and Adams, G. G. (2010) Polysaccharide drug delivery systems based on pectin and chitosan. Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering Reviews, 27. pp. 257-283. ISSN 0264-8725

[img]
Preview
PDF - Accepted Version
Download (1418kB) | Preview

    Abstract

    Chitosans and pectins are natural polysaccharides which show great potential in drug delivery systems. Chitosans are a family of strongly polycationic derivatives of poly-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine. This positive charge is very important in chitosan drug delivery systems as it plays a very important role in mucoadhesion (adhesion to the mucosal surface). Other chitosan based drug delivery systems involve complexation with ligands to form chitosan nanoparticles with can be used to encapsulate active compounds. Pectins are made of several structural elements the most important of which are the homogalacturonan (HG) and type I rhamnogalacturonan (RG-I) regions often described in simplified terms as the "smooth" and "hairy" regions respectively. Pectin HG regions consist of poly-glacturonic acid residues which can be partially methyl esterified. Pectins with a degree of methyl esterification (DM) > 50% are known as high methoxyl (HM) pectins and consequently low methoxyl (LM) pectins have a DM < 50%. Low methoxyl pectins are of particular interest in drug delivery as they can form gels with calcium ion (Ca2+) which has potential applications especially in nasal formulations. In this chapter we will discuss the physicochemical properties of both chitosans and pectins and how these translate to current and potential drug delivery systems.

    ▼ Jump to Download Statistics
    Item Type: Article
    Uncontrolled Keywords: calcium ion chitosan homogalacturonan nanoparticle pectin rhamnogalacturonan unclassified drug chemical analysis complex formation drug delivery system drug structure esterification mucoadhesion nanopharmaceutics physical chemistry review
    Subjects: Q Science > Q Science (General)
    Schools: School of Applied Sciences
    Related URLs:
    References:

    Language of Original Document: English
    Correspondence Address: Morris, G. A.; NCMH Laboratory, School of Biosciences, University of Nottingham, Sutton Bonington LE12 5RD, United Kingdom; email: gordon.morris@nottingham.ac.uk
    Chemicals/CAS: calcium ion, 14127-61-8; chitosan, 9012-76-4; pectin, 9000-69-5
    References: Amidi, M., Hennink, W.E., Preface: Chitosan-based formulations of drugs, imaging agents and biotherapeutics (2010) Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews, 62, pp. 1-2; Amidi, M., Mastrobattista, E., Jiskoot, W., Hennink, W.E., ChitosaN based delivery systems for protein therapeutics and antigens (2010) Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews, 62, pp. 59-82; Anderson, M.T., Harding, S.E., Davis, S.S., On the interaction in solution of a candidate mucoadhesive polymer, diethylaminoethyl-dextran, with pig gastric mucus glycoprotein (1989) Biochemical Society Transactions, 17, pp. 1101-1102; Anger, H., Berth, G., Gel-permeation chromatography of sunflower pectin (1985) Carbohydrate Polymers, 5, pp. 241-250; Ashford, M., Fell, J.J., Attwood, D., Sharma, H.L., Woodhead, P.J., An evaluation of pectin as a carrier for drug targeting to the colon (1993) Journal of Controlled Release, 26, pp. 213-220; Aspden, T.J., Illum, L., Skaugrud, Ø., Chitosan as a nasal delivery system: Evaluation of insulin absorption enhancement and effect on nasal membrane integrity using rat models (1996) European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 4, pp. 23-31; Aspden, T.J., Mason, J.D.T., Jones, N.S., Lowe, J., Skaugrud, Ø., Illum, I., Chitosan as a nasal delivery system: The effect of chitosan solutions on in vitro and in vivo mucociliary transport rates in human turbinates and volunteers (1997) Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 86, pp. 509-513; Axelos, M.A.V., Lefebvre, J., Thibault, J.-F., Conformation of a low methoxyl citrus pectin in aqueous solution (1987) Food Hydrocolloids, 1, pp. 569-570; Axelos, M.A.V., Thibault, J.-F., The chemistry of low-methoxyl pectin gelation (1991) The Chemistry and Technology of Pectin, pp. 109-118. , Walter R. H. (Ed.) San Diego: Academic Press; Balo�lu, E., Özyazici, M., Hearcio�lu, S.Y., Karavana, H.A., An in vitro investigation for vaginal bioadhesive formulations: Bioadhesive properties and swelling states of polymer mixtures (2003) Il Farmaco, 58, pp. 391-396; Balo�lu, E., Özyazici, M., Hizarcio�lu, S.Y., Senyi�it, T., Özyurt, D., Pekçetin, C., Bioadhesive controlled release systems of ornidazole for vaginal delivery (2006) Pharmaceutical Development and Technology, 11, pp. 477-484; Beneke, C.M., Viljoen, A.M., Hamman, J.H., Polymeric plant-derived excipients in drug delivery (2009) Molecules, 14, pp. 2602-2620; Berth, G., Anger, H., Linow, F., Scattered-light photometric and viscosimetric studies of molecular mass determination of pectins in aqueous-solutions (1977) Nahrung-Food, 31, pp. 939-950; Berth, G., Dautzenberg, H., Peter, M.G., Physico-chemical characterization of chitosans varying in degree of acetylation (1998) Carbohydrate Polymers, 36, pp. 205-216; Bhattarai, N., Gunn, J., Zhang, M., Chitosan-based hydrogels for controlled, localized drug delivery (2010) Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews, 62, pp. 83-99; Braccini, I., Grasso, R.P., Perez, S., Conformational and configurational features of acidic polysaccharides and their interactions with calcium ions: A molecular modeling investigation (1999) Carbohydrate Research, 317, pp. 199-1130; Brugnerotto, J., Desbrières, J., Roberts, G., Rinaudo, M., Characterization of chitosan by steric exclusion chromatography (2001) Polymer, 42, pp. 9921-9927; Chambin, O., Dupuis, G., Champion, D., Voilley, A., Pourcelot, Y., Colon-specific drug delivery: Influence of solution reticulation properties upon pectin beads performance (2006) International Journal of Pharmaceutics, 321, pp. 86-93; Carino, G.P., Jacob, J.S., Mathiowitz, E., Nanosphere based oral insulin delivery (2000) Journal of Controlled Release, 65, pp. 261-269; Charlton, S.T., Davis, S.S., Illum, L., Evaluation of bioadhesive polymers as delivery systems for nose to brain delivery: In vitro characterisation studies (2007) Journal of Controlled Release, 118, pp. 225-234; Chelladurai, S., Mishra, M., Mishra, B., Design and Evaluation of Bioadhesive in-Situ Nasal Gel of Ketorolac Tromethamine (2008) Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin, 56, pp. 1596-1599; Chen, H., Langer, L., Oral particulate delivery: Status and future trends (1998) Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews, 34, pp. 339-350; Chien, Y.W., Su, K.S.E., Chang, S.F., (1989) Nasal Systemic Drug Delivery, pp. 1-26. , New York: Marcel Dekker Inc; Cros, S.C., Garnier, C., Axelos, M.A.V., Imbery, A., Perez, S., Solution conformations of pectin polysaccharides: Determination of chain characteristics by small angle neutron scattering, viscometry and molecular modeling (1996) Biopolymers, 39, pp. 339-352; Cölfen, H., Berth, G., Dautzenberg, H., Hydrodynamic studies on chitosans in aqueous solution (2001) Carbohydrate Polymers, 45, pp. 373-383; Dale, O., Hjortkjaer, R., Kharasch, E.D., Nasal administration of opioids for pain management in adults (2002) Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, (46), pp. 759-770; Davis, S.S., Small intestine transit (1989) Drug Delivery to the Gastrointestinal Tract, pp. 49-61. , Hardy, J. G., Davis, S. S. and Wilson, C. G. (Eds.) Chichester: Ellis Horwood; Davis, S.S., Illum, L., Chitosan for oral delivery of drugs (2000) Chitosan per Os: From Dietary Supplement to Drug Carrier, pp. 137-164. , Muzzarelli, R. A. A. (Ed.). Grottammare: Atec; Deacon, M.P., Davis, S.S., White, R.J., Nordman, H., Carlstedt, I., Errington N, N., Rowe, A.J., Harding, S.E., Are chitosan-mucin interactions specific to different regions of the stomach? Velocity ultracentrifugation offers a clue (1999) Carbohydrate Polymers, 38, pp. 235-238; Deacon, M.P., McGurk, S., Roberts, C.J., Williams, P.M., Tendler, S.J.B., Davies, M.C., Davis, S.S., Harding, S.E., Atomic force microscopy of gastric mucin and chitosan mucoadhesive systems (2000) Biochemical Journal, 348, pp. 557-563; De La Fuente, M., Raviña, M., Paolicelli, P., Sanchez, A., Seijo, B., Alonso, M.J., Chitosan-based nanostructures: A delivery platform for ocular therapeutics (2010) Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews, 62, pp. 100-117; Dhawan, S., Singla, A.K., Sinha, V.R., Evaluation of mucoadhesive properties of chitosan microspheres prepared by different methods (2004) AAPS PharmSciTech, 5, pp. 1-7; Dodou, D., Breedveld, P., Wieringa, P.A., Mucoadhesives in the gastrointestinal tract: Revisiting the literature for novel applications (2005) European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics, 60, pp. 1-16; Dyer, A.M., Hinchcliffe, M., Castile, W.P., Jabbal-Gill, J., Nankervis, I.R., Smith, A., Illum, L., Nasal delivery of insulin using novel chitosan based formulations: A comparative study in two animal models between simple chitosan formulations and chitosan nanoparticles (2002) Pharmaceutical Research, 19, pp. 998-1008; Errington, N., Harding, S.E., Vårum, K.M., Illum, L., Hydrodynamic characterisation of chitosans varying in degree of acetylation (1993) International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 15, pp. 113-117; Fee, M., Errington, N., Jumel, K., Illum, L., Smith, A., Harding, S.E., Correlation of SEC/MALLS with ultracentrifuge and viscometric data for chitosans (2003) European Biophysical Journal, 32, pp. 457-464; Fernández-Urrasuno, R., Calvo, P., Rumuñán-Lopez, C., Vila-Jato, J.L., Alonso, M.J., Enhancement of nasal absorption of insulin using chitosan nanoparticles (1999) Pharmaceutical Research, 16, pp. 1576-1581; Fishman, M.L., Chau, H.K., Hoagland, P.D., Hotchkiss, A.T., Microwave-assisted extraction of lime pectin (2006) Food Hydrocolloids, 20, pp. 1170-1177; Fishman, M.L., Chau, H.K., Kolpak, F., Brady, J., Solvent effects on the molecular properties of pectins (2001) Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 49, pp. 4494-4501; Fiebrig, I., Davis, S.S., Harding, S.E., Methods used to develop mucoadhesive drug delivery systems: Bioadhesion in the gastrointestinal tract (1995) Biopolymer Mixtures, pp. 373-419. , Harding, S. E., Hill, S. E. and Mitchell, J. R. (Eds.) Nottingham: Nottingham University Press; Fiebrig, I., Harding, S.E., Davis, S.S., Sedimentation analysis of the potential interactions between mucins and putative bioadhesive polymer (1994) Progress in Colloid and Polymer Science, 93, pp. 66-73; Fiebrig, I., Harding, S.E., Rowe, A.J., Hyman, S.C., Davis, S.S., Transmission electron microscopy studies on pig gastric mucin and its interactions with chitosan (1995) Carbohydrate Polymers, 28, pp. 239-244; Fiebrig, I., Harding, S.E., Stokke, B.T., Vårum, K.M., Jordan, D., Davis, S.S., The potential for chitosan as mucoadhesive drug carrier: Studies on its interaction with pig gastric mucin on a molecular level (1994) European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2, p. 185; Fry, S.C., Phenolic compounds of the primary cell wall: Feruloylated disaccharides of D-galactose and L-arabinose from spinach polysaccharide (1982) Biochemical Journal, 203, pp. 493-502; Gan, Q., Wang, T., Chitosan nanoparticle as protein delivery carrier Systematic examination of fabrication conditions for efficient loading and release (2007) Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, 59, pp. 24-34; Gan, Q., Wang, T., Cochrane, C., McCarron, P., Modulation of surface charge, particle size and morphological properties of chitosan-TPP nanoparticles intended for gene delivery (2005) Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, 44, pp. 65-73; Garnier, C., Axelos, M.A.V., Thibault, J.-F., Phase-diagrams of pectin-calcium systems - Influence of pH, ionic-strength, and temperature on the gelation of pectins with different degrees of methylation (1993) Carbohydrate Research, 240, pp. 219-232; Genta, I., Costantini, M., Asti, A., Conti, B., Montanari, L., Influence of glutaraldehyde on drug release and mucoadhesive properties of chitosan microspheres (1998) Carbohydrate Polymers, 36, pp. 81-88; Harding, S.E., Mucoadhesive interactions (2003) Biochemical Society Transactions, 31, pp. 1036-1041; Harding, S.E., Trends in mucoadhesive analysis (2006) Trends in Food Science and Technology, 17, pp. 255-262; Harding, S.E., Berth, G., Ball, A., Mitchell, J.R., De La Garcìa Torre, J., The molecular weight distribution and conformation of citrus pectins in solution studied by hydrodynamics (1991) Carbohydrate Polymers, 16, pp. 1-15; Harding, S.E., Davis, S.S., Deacon, M.P., Fiebrig, I., Biopolymer mucoadhensives (1999) Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering Reviews, 16, pp. 41-86. , Harding, S. E. (Ed.) Andover: Intercept; Harding, S.E., Rowe, A.J., Creeth, J.M., Further evidence for a flexible and highly expanded spheroidal model for mucus glycoproteins in solution (1983) Biochemical Journal, 209, pp. 893-896; Harish Prashanth, K.V., Tharanathan, R.N., Chitin/ chitosan: Modifications and their unlimited potential - An overview (2007) Trends in Food Science and Technology, 18, pp. 117-131; He, P., Davis, S.S., Illum, L., In-vitro evaluation of the properties of chitosan microspheres (1998) International Journal of Pharmaceutics, 166, pp. 75-168; He, P., Davis, S.S., Illum, L., Chitosan microspheres prepared by novel modified spray drying methods (1999) Journal of Microencapsulation, 16, pp. 343-355; Holme, H.K., Davidsen, L., Kristiansen, A., Smidsrød, O., Kinetics and mechanisms of the depolymerization of alginate and chitosan in aqueous solution (2008) Carbohydrate Polymers, 73, pp. 656-664; Illum, L., Chitosan and its use as a pharmaceutical excipient (1998) Pharmaceutical Research, 15, pp. 1326-1331; Illum, L., Improved delivery of drugs to mucosal services (2000), European patent EP0975367B1Illum, L., Nasal drug delivery: New. developments and strategies (2002) Drug Discovery Today, 7, pp. 1184-1189; Ishii, T., O-acetylated oligosaccharides from pectins of potato tuber cell walls (1997) Plant Physiology, 113, pp. 1265-1272; Jabbal-Gill, I., Fischer, A.N., Rappuoli, R., Davis, S.S., Illum, L., Stimulation of mucosal and systemic responses against Bordetella pertussis filamentous haemagglutinin and recombinant pertussis toxin after nasal administration with chitosan in mice (1998) Vaccine, 16, pp. 2039-2046; Jain, D., Panda, A.K., Majumdar, D.K., Eudragit S100 Entrapped Insulin Microspheres for Oral Delivery (2005) AAPS PharmSciTech, 6, pp. E100-E107; Janes, K.A., Calvo, P., Alonso, M.J., Polysaccharide colloidal particles as delivery systems for macromolecules (2001) Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews, 47, pp. 83-97; Kasaai, M.R., Calculation of Mark-Houwink-Sakurada (MHS) equation viscometric constants for chitosan in any solvent-temperature system using experimental reported viscometric constants data (2006) Carbohydrate Polymers, 68, pp. 477-488; Kean, T., Thanou, M., Biodegradation, biodistribution and toxicity of chitosan (2010) Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews, 62, pp. 3-11; Kim, S.J., Shin, S.R., Lee, K.B., Park, Y.D., Kim, S.I., Synthesis and characteristics of polyelectrolyte complexes composed of chitosan and hyaluronic acid (2004) Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 91, pp. 2908-2913; Komalavilas, P., Mort, A.J., The acetylation of O-3 of galacturonic acid in the rhamnose-rich portion of pectin (1989) Carbohydrate Research, 189, pp. 261-272; Kondo, Y., Nakatani, A., Hayashi, K., Ito, M., Low molecular weight chitosan prevents the progression of low dose streptozotocin induced slowly progressive diabetes mellitus in mice (2000) Biological and Pharmacological Bulletin, 23, pp. 1458-1464; Kratky, O., Porod, G., Röntgenungtersuchung gelöster fadenmoleküle (1949) Recueil des Travaux Chimiques des Pays-Bas, 68, pp. 1106-1109; Kubota, N., Eguchi, Y., Facile preparation of water-soluble n-acetylated chitosan and molecular weight dependence of its water-solubility (1997) Polymer Journal, 29, pp. 123-127; Kumari, A., Yadav, S.K., Yadav, S.C., Biodegradable polymeric nanoparticles based drug delivery systems (2010) Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, (75), pp. 1-18; Kujawa, P., Schmauch, G., Viitala, T., Badia, A., Winnik, F.M., Construction of viscoelastic biocompatible films via the layer-by-layer assembly of hyaluronan and phosphorylcholine-modified chitosan (2007) Biomacromolecules, (8), pp. 3169-3176; Lamarque, G., Lucas, J.-M., Viton, C., Domard, A., Physicochemical behavior of homogeneous series of acetylated chitosans in aqueous solution: Role of various structural parameters (2005) Biomacromolecules, 6, pp. 131-142; Lapasin, R., Pricl, S., (1995) Rheology of Industrial Polysaccharides, Theory and Applications, , Blackie, London, UK; LeHoux, J.-G., Depuis, G., Recovery of chitosan from aqueous acidic solutions by salting-out: Part 1. Use of inorganic salts (2007) Carbohydrate Polymers, 68, pp. 295-304; Levigne, S., Ralet, M.-C., Quéméner, B., Thibault, J.-F., Isolation of diferulic bridges ester-linked to arabinan in sugar beet cell walls (2004) Carbohydrate Research, 339, pp. 2315-2319; Levigne, S., Ralet, M.-C., Quéméner, B.C., Pollet, B.N.-L., Lapierre, C., Thibault, J.-F., Isolation from sugar beet cell walls of arabinan oligosaccharides esterified by two ferulic acid monomers (2004) Plant Physiology, 134, pp. 1173-1180; Lim, S.T., Martin, G.P., Berry, D.J., Brown, M.B., Preparation and evaluation of the in vitro drug release properties and mucoadhesion of novel microspheres of hyaluronic acid and chitosan (2007) Journal of Controlled Release, 66, pp. 281-292; Lin, Y.H., Chen, C.H., Liang, H.F., Kulkarni, A.R., Lee, P.W., Chen, C.H., Sung, H.W., Novel nanoparticles for oral insulin delivery via the paracellular pathway (2007) Nanotechnology, 18, pp. 1-11; Lopes Da Silva, J.A., Gonçalves, M.P., Rheological study into the ageing process of high methoxyl pectin/ sucrose gels (1994) Carbohydrate Polymers, 24, pp. 235-245; Luangtana-Anan, M., Opanasopit, P., Ngawhirunpat, T., Nunthanid, J., Sriamornsak, P., Limmatvapirat, S., Lim, L.Y., Effect of chitosan salts and molecular weight on a nanoparticulate carrier for therapeutic protein (2005) Pharmaceutical Development and Technology, 10, pp. 189-196; Lui, L., Fishman, M.L., Hicks, K.B., Pectin in controlled drug delivery - A review (2007) Cellulose, 14, pp. 15-24; Lui, L., Fishman, M.L., Hicks, K.B., Kende, M., Interactio

    Depositing User: Gordon Morris
    Date Deposited: 18 May 2011 13:49
    Last Modified: 01 Jul 2014 15:10
    URI: http://eprints.hud.ac.uk/id/eprint/10467

    Document Downloads

    Downloader Countries

    More statistics for this item...

    Item control for Repository Staff only:

    View Item

    University of Huddersfield, Queensgate, Huddersfield, HD1 3DH Copyright and Disclaimer All rights reserved ©