Computing and Library Services - delivering an inspiring information environment

Yield and physicochemical properties of EPS from Halomonas sp. strain TG39 identifies a role for protein and anionic residues (sulfate and phosphate) in emulsification of n-hexadecane

Gutierrez, T., Morris, Gordon and Green, D. H. (2009) Yield and physicochemical properties of EPS from Halomonas sp. strain TG39 identifies a role for protein and anionic residues (sulfate and phosphate) in emulsification of n-hexadecane. Biotechnology and Bioengineering, 103 (1). pp. 207-216. ISSN 0006-3592

Metadata only available from this repository.


In this study, we investigated the yield and physicochemical properties of the high molecular weight extracellular polymeric substance (HMW-EPS) produced by Halomonas sp. strain TG39 when grown on different types and ratios of substrates. Glucose (1% w/v) and a peptone/yeast extract ratio of 5.1 (0.6% w/v final concentration) yielded an EPS fraction (HMW-glucose) exhibiting the highest anionic activity (20.5) and specific emulsifying activity (EI 24 = 100%) compared to EPS produced by cells grown on mannitol, sucrose, malt extract or no carbon source. The HMW-EPS fractions were capable of binding ≈255-464 mg of methylene blue (MB) per gram of EPS, which represents the highest reported binding of MB by a bacterial EPS. A comparative evaluation of these properties to those of commercial hydrocolloids indicated that the combined effect of protein and anionic residues of the HMW-EPS contributed to its ability to emulsify n-hexadecane. Liquid chromatography revealed the HMW-glucose EPS to be a heterogeneous polymer with a polydispersity index of 1.8. This work presents evidence of a correlation between the anionic nature and protein content of bacterial EPS with its emulsifying qualities, and identifies EPS produced by strain TG39 as a high MB-binding bacterial sorbant with potential biotechnological application. © 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: Anionic residues Emulsification Exopolysaccharides (EPS) Halomonas Hexadecane Methylene blue Bacteriology Chromatographic analysis Glucose Liquid chromatography Paraffins Polydispersity Polymers Polysaccharides Sugar (sucrose) exopolysaccharide phosphate sulfate alkane bacterial polysaccharide emulsifying agent n-hexadecane protein article bacterial growth bacterial strain binding affinity carbon source controlled study emulsion nonhuman protein analysis protein function chemistry metabolism Bacteria (microorganisms) Alkanes Emulsifying Agents Emulsions Phosphates Polysaccharides, Bacterial Proteins Sulfates
Subjects: Q Science > QD Chemistry
Schools: School of Applied Sciences
Related URLs:

Language of Original Document: English
Correspondence Address: Gutierrez, T.; Microbial and Molecular Biology Department, Scottish Association for Marine Science, Dunstaffnage Marine Laboratory, Oban, United Kingdom; email:
Chemicals/CAS: glucose, 50-99-7, 84778-64-3; hexadecane, 544-76-3; phosphate, 14066-19-4, 14265-44-2; sulfate, 14808-79-8; protein, 67254-75-5; Alkanes; Emulsifying Agents; Emulsions; Phosphates; Polysaccharides, Bacterial; Proteins; Sulfates; n-hexadecane, 544-76-3
References: Arias, S., Del Moral, A., Ferrer, M.R., Tallon, R., Quesada, E., Bejar, V., Mauran, an exopolysaccharide produced by the halophilic bacterium Halomonas maura, with a novel composition and interesting properties for biotechnology (2003) Extremophiles, 7 (4), pp. 319-326. , DOI 10.1007/s00792-003-0325-8; Baird, J.K., Sandford, P.A., Cottrell, I.W., Industrial applications of some new microbial polysaccharides (1983) Bio/Technol, 1, pp. 778-783; Banat, I.M., Makkar, R.S., Cameotra, S.S., Potential commercial applications of microbial surfactants (2000) Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 53 (5), pp. 495-508; Belsky, I., Gutnick, D.L., Rosenberg, E., Emulsifier of Arthrobacter RAG-1: Determination of emulsifier-bound fatty acids (1979) FEBS Lett, 101, pp. 175-178; Bertaud, F., Sundberg, A., Holmbom, B., Evaluation of acid methanolysis for analysis of wood hemicelluloses and pectins (2002) Carbohydrate Polymers, 48 (3), pp. 319-324. , DOI 10.1016/S0144-8617(01)00249-1, PII S0144861701002491; Boyle, C.D., Reade, A.E., Characterisation of two extracellular polysaccharides from marine bacteria (1983) Appl Environ Microbiol, 46, pp. 392-399; Calvo, C., Martinez-Checa, F., Mota, A., Bejar, V., Quesada, E., Effect of cations, pH and sulfate content on the viscosity and emulsifying activity of the Halomonas eurihalina exopolysaccharide (1998) J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol, 20, pp. 205-209; Calvo, C., Martinez-Checa, F., Toledo, F.L., Porcel, J., Quesada, E., Characteristics of bioemulsifiers synthesised in crude oil media by Halomonas eurihalina and their effectiveness in the isolation of bacteria able to grow in the presence of hydrocarbons (2002) Appl Microbiol Biotechnol, 60, pp. 347-351; Cesaretti, M., Luppi, E., Maccari, F., Volpi, N., A 96-well assay for uronic acid carbazole reaction (2003) Carbohydr Polym, 54, pp. 59-61; Cooper, D.G., Goldenberg, B.G., Surface-active agents from two Bacillus species (1987) Appl Environ Microbiol, 53, pp. 224-229; Corpe, W.A., An acid polysaccharide produced by primary film forming bacteria (1970) Dev Ind Microbiol, 16, pp. 249-255; Dea, I.C.M., Madden, J.K., Acetylated pectic polysaccharides of sugar beet (1986) Food Hydrocolloids, 1, pp. 71-88; Decho, A.W., Microbial exopolymer secretions in ocean environments: Their role(s) in food webs and marine processes (1990) Oceanography Marine Biology Annual Review, pp. 73-153. , Barnes M, editor. Aberdeen: Aberdeen University Press; Dickinson, E., Murray, B.S., Stainsby, G., Protein adsorption at air-water and oil-water interfaces (1988) Advances in Food Emulsions and Foams, pp. 123-162. , Dickinson E, Stainsby G, editors. London: Elsevier; Filisetti-Cozzi, T.M.C.C., Carpita, N.C., Measurement of uronic acids without interference from neutral sugars (1991) Analy Biochem, 197, pp. 157-162; Garti, N., Leser, M.E., Natural hydrocolloids as food emulsifiers (1999) Design and Selection of Performance Surfactants, pp. 104-145. , Karsa DR, editor. Sheffield, UK: Sheffield Academic Press; Giavasis, I., Harvey, L.M., McNeil, B., Gellan gum (2000) Crit Rev Biotechnol, 20, pp. 177-211; Goldman, S., Shabtai, Y., Rubinovitz, C., Rosenberg, E., Gutnick, D.L., Emulsan in Acinetobacter calcoaceticus RAG-1: Distribution of cell-free and cell-associated cross-reacting material (1982) Appl Environ Microbiol, 44, pp. 165-170; Green, D.H., Llewellyn, L.E., Negri, A.P., Blackburn, S.I., Bolch, C.J.S., Phylogenetic and functional diversity of the cultivable bacterial community associated with the paralytic shellfish poisoning dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum (2004) FEMS Microbiol Ecol, 47, pp. 345-357; Gurov, A.N., Mukhin, M.A., Larichev, N.A., Lozinskaya, N.V., Tolstogyzov, V.B., Emulsifying properties of proteins and polysaccharides. 1. Methods of determination of emulsifying capacity and emulsion stability (1983) Colloids Surf, 6, pp. 35-42; Gutierrez, T., Mulloy, B., Black, K., Green, D.H., Glycoprotein emulsifiers from two marine Halomonas species: Chemical and physical characterization (2007) J Appl Microbiol, 103, pp. 1716-1727; Gutierrez, T., Shimmield, T., Haidon, C., Black, K., Green, D.H., Emulsifying and metal ion binding activity of a glycoprotein exopolymer produced by Pseudoalteromonas sp. strain TG12 (2008) Appl Environ Microbiol, 74, pp. 4867-4876; Harding, S.E., Vårum, K.M., Stokke, B.T., Smidsrød, O., Molecular weight determination of polysaccharides (1991) Advances in Carbohydrate Analysis, 1, pp. 63-144. , White CA, editor. Greenwich, USA: JAI Press Ltd; Huang, Y., Indrarti, L., Azuma, J., Okamura, K., Simultaneous determination of xylose and uronic acid in Beech xylan by methanolysis (1992) Mokuzai Gakkaishi, 38, pp. 1168-1171; Inoue, K., Korenaga, H., Tanaka, N.G., Sakamoto, N., Kadoya, S., The sulfated polysaccharide-peptidoglycan complex potently inhibits embryonic angiogenesis and tumor growth in the presence of cortisone acetate (1988) Carbohydr Res, 81, pp. 135-142; Kaplan, N., Zosim, Z., Rosenberg, E., Reconstitution of emulsifying activity of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus BD4 emulsan by using pure polysaccharide and protein (1987) Appl Environ Microbiol, 53, pp. 440-446; Kaplan, D., Christiaen, D., Arad, S., Chelating properties of extracellular polysaccharides from Chlorella spp. (1987) Appl Environ Microbiol, 53, pp. 2953-2956; Kennedy, A.F.D., Sutherland, I.W., Analysis of bacterial exopolysaccharides (1987) Biotechnol Appl Biochem, 9, pp. 12-19; Larichev, N.A., Gurov, A.N., Tolstoguzov, V.B., Protein polysaccharide complexes at the interphase. 1. Characteristics of decane/water emulsions stabilized by complexes of bovine serum albumin with dextran sulfate (1983) Colloids Surf, 6, pp. 27-34; Laws, A., Gu, Y., Marshall, V., Biosynthesis, characterisation, and design of bacterial exopolysaccharides from lactic acid bacteria (2001) Biotechnol Adv, 19, pp. 597-625; Leppard, G.G., Heissenberge, A., Herndl, G.J., Ultrastructure of marine snow. I. Transmission electron microscopy methodology (1996) Mar Ecol Progr Ser, 135, pp. 289-298; Mancuso Nichols, C.A., Guezennec, J., Bowman, J.P., Bacterial exopolysaccharides from extreme marine environments with special consideration of the Southern Ocean, sea ice, and deep-sea hydrothermal vents: A review (2005) Marine Biotechnology, 7 (4), pp. 253-271. , DOI 10.1007/s10126-004-5118-2; Martinez-Checa, F., Toledo, F.L., Vilchez, R., Quesada, E., Calvo, C., Yield production, chemical composition, and functional properties of emulsifier H28 synthesized by Halomonas eurihalina strain H-28 in media containing various hydrocarbons (2002) Appl Microbiol Biotechnol, 58, pp. 358-363; Nakamura, M., Stabilization of emulsions by a natural polymer. Study of gum Arabic (1986) Yakugakui, 35, pp. 554-560; Nishino, T., Yokoyama, G., Dobashi, K., Fujihara, M., Nagumo, T., Isolation, purification and characterization of fucose containing sulfated polysaccharides from the brown seaweed Ecklonia kurome and their blood-anticoagulant activities (1989) Carbohydr Res, 186, pp. 119-129; Okutani, K., Antiviral activities of sulfated derivatives of a fucosamine containing polysaccharide of marine bacterial origin (1992) Nippon Suisan Gakkaishi, 58, pp. 927-930; Pepi, M., Cesaro, A., Liut, G., Baldi, F., An antarctic psychrotrophic bacterium Halomonas sp. ANT-3b, growing on n-hexadecane, produces a new emulsifying glycolipid (2005) FEMS Microbiol Ecol, 53, pp. 157-166; Randall, R.C., Phillips, G.O., Williams, P.A., Fractionation and characterization of gum from Acacia senegal (1989) Food Hydrocoll, 3, pp. 65-75; Rosenberg, E., Microbial diversity as a source of useful biopolymers (1993) J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol, 11, pp. 131-137; Samant, S.K., Singhal, R.S., Kulkarni, P.R., Rege, D.V., Protein-polysaccharide interactions: A new approach in food formulations (1993) Int J Food Sci Technol, 28, pp. 547-562; Shepherd, R., Rockey, J., Sutherland, I.W., Roller, S., Novel bioemulsifiers from microorganisms for use in foods (1995) J Biotechnol, 40, pp. 207-217; Snoeren, T.H.M., (1976), PhD thesis, University of Wageningen, Wageningen, NetherlandsSoedjak, H.S., Colorimetric determination of carrageenans and other anionic hydrocolloids with methylene blue (1994) Anal Chem, 66, pp. 4514-4518; Stanley, N., Production, properties and uses of carrageenan (1987) Production and Utilization of Products from Commercial Seaweeds, pp. 116-146. , McHugh DJ, editor. Rome, Italy: Vol.288. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper; Sutherland, I.W., Novel and established applications of microbial polysaccharides (1998) Trends Biotechnol, 16, pp. 41-46; Theisen, A., Johann, C., Deacon, M.P., Harding, S.E., (2000) Refractive Increment Data Book, , Nottingham, UK: Nottingham University Press; Veglio, F., Beolchini, F., Removal of metals by biosorption: A review (1997) Hydrometallurgy, 44, pp. 301-316; Vijayaraghavan, K., Mao, J., Yun, Y.-S., Biosorption of methylene blue from aqueous solution using free and polysulfone-immobilized Corynebacterium glutamicum: Batch and column studies (2008) Biores Technol, 99, pp. 2864-2871; Weiner, R.M., Biopolymers from marine prokaryotes (1997) Mar Biotechnol, 15, pp. 390-394; Williams, P.A., Phillips, G.O., Randall, R., Structure-function relationships of gum Arabic (1990) Gums and Stabilizers for the Food Industry, pp. 25-36. , Phillips GO, Wedlock DJ, Williams PA, editors. Oxford: IRL Press; Wyatt, P.J., Combined differential light scattering with various liquid chromatography separation techniques (1992) Laser Light Scattering in Biochemistry, pp. 35-58. , Harding SE, Sattelle DB, Bloomfield VA, editors. Cambridge: Royal Society of Chemistry; Zemaitaitiene, R.J., Zliobaite, E., Klimaviciute, R., Zemaitaitis, A., The role of anionic substances in removal of textile dyes from solutions using cationic flocculant (2003) Colloids Surf A Physicochem Eng Aspects, 214, pp. 37-47

Depositing User: Gordon Morris
Date Deposited: 19 May 2011 13:32
Last Modified: 01 Jul 2011 15:29

Item control for Repository Staff only:

View Item

University of Huddersfield, Queensgate, Huddersfield, HD1 3DH Copyright and Disclaimer All rights reserved ©